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Karl K. BerggrenKarl K. Berggren - Karl Berggren is Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, where he heads the Quantum Nanostructures and Nanofabrication Group. He is also Director of the Nanostructures Laboratory in the Research Laboratory of Electronics and is a core faculty member in the Microsystems Technology Laboratory (MTL). From December of 1996 to September of 2003, Professor Berggren served as a staff member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts, and from 2010 to 2011, was on sabbatical at the Technical University of Delft. His current research focuses on methods of nanofabrication, especially applied to superconductive photodetectors, high-speed superconductive electronics, and energy systems. His thesis work focused on nanolithographic methods using neutral atoms.

Prototyping and Manufacturing Below 10-nm: Approaching Atomic-Scale Nanofabrication

Controlled nanofabrication at the sub-10-nm lengthscale requires combined advances in top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication. Bottom-up methods such as templated self-assembly permit large areas to be patterned, but the complexity and control of patterns is extremely limited. On the other hand, traditional methods of top-down lithography have focused on larger length scales. I will describe methods by which these two methods can be used in concert to achieve high resolution sub-10-nm length scale patterns across large areas.

I will start by describing methods of sub-10-nm lithography by using traditional electron beam lithography [1], as well as by using both helium-ion [2] and neon-ion lithography [3]. I will then discuss how these techniques can be used to template the fabrication of structures with structures ranging from simple arrays of dots [4] to complex interconnected lines with varying pitch and dimension [5], by using directed self-assembly.

[1] JKW Yang, and KK Berggren, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 2007, 25, 2025.
[2] D Winston, BM Cord, B Ming, DC Bell, WF DiNatale, LA Stern, AE Vladar, MT Postek, MK Mondol, JKW Yang, and KK Berggren, J. Vac. Sci. Tech. B 2009, 27, 2702-2706.
[3] D Winston, VR Manfrinato, SM Nicaise, LL Cheong, H Duan, D Ferranti, J Marshman, S McVey, L Stern, J Notte, KK Berggren, Nanoletters, in press.
[4] I Bita, JKW Yang, YS Jung, CA Ross, EL Thomas, and KK Berggren, Science 2008, 321, 936.
[5] JKW Yang, YS Jung, JB Chang, RA Mickiewicz, A Alexander-Katz, CA Ross and KK Berggren, Nature Nanotech. 2010, 5, 256-260.
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Additional Funding Provided by MEDC